When children reject a parent each parent usually has a narrative as to what happened. The rejected parent may claim that the child's rejection has been engineered by the favored parent through the process of parental alienation such that the children are unjustifiably rejecting him/her. The favored parent, however, usually has an explanation that involves the children having legitimate complaints about the rejected parent based on that parent's incompetence if not maltreatment. The five-factor model was developed in order to provide a framework for considering the actions and attitudes of all the parties and ruling out alternative explanations for the children's rejection. According to this model all five factors must be present to conclude that the child is alienated as opposed to estranged. This workshop presents the theory underlying this model and describes each of the five factors in detail.