Shared parenting is new concept in Iran. In order to design a local model for shared parenting, we need to know more about these challenges in Iran. Legal Challenges: Shared parenting is not defined in Iran's Family Protection Law and there is no legal process for the determination of shared parenting. Although judges refer couples who request divorce to counsellors, there is no process for judges to refer parents to mediators to facilitate the development of shared parenting plans. Cultural obstacles: Although a co-parental relationship is essential for shared parenting, culturally in Iran, divorce legally severs relationships between separated partners, and there is little or no encouragement of continuing communication between the parents. Ex-spousal relationships are especially discouraged when one or both of the parents have remarried. Social support: There are no formal or informal social supports for divorcing parents in Iran. Shared parenting requires a great deal of effort and coordination to actualize, and to be successful, and parents require intensive support services. Divorce reasons: Substance use is one of the most important precipitators of divorce in Iran. Substance use profoundly affects the ability to effectively parent a child. Couples’ failure in their marital relationship is another reason for divorce. In successful shared parenting arrangements, divorced parents should be able to co-operate to some degree, and establish a new type of relationship with each other, focused on what is best for their children. Divorced parents' weak interpersonal skills could threaten shared parenting processes. Although providing mediation services for divorced parents in child and family protection organizations is necessary, there are no national guidelines in place for shared parenting mediation in Iran, and the field is very much in its infancy. Thew development of local models for shared parenting and mediation guidelines should address all of the challenges mentioned above.